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COVID-19 Vaccination

1. How many COVID-19 vaccines are available?

Vaccine development generally take years of research and testing before they reach the public, but in 2020 and in the COVID-19 pandemic context, scientists around the world are working to produce safe and effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in record time. There are currently hundreds of research groups developing and testing different types of vaccines. As of January 2021, 66 vaccines are already in human clinical trials, and 20 have reached the final stages of testing.

The most advanced vaccines have already been approved for emergency use by several countries. Those include:

  • AstraZeneca/Oxford
  • CanSinoBIO
  • Covaxin
  • Johnson & Johnson
  • Moderna
  • Pfizer/BioNTech*
  • Sinopharm
  • Sinovac
  • Sputnik V

*El pasado 23 de agosto de 2021, la Administración de Medicamentos y Alimentos de los Estados Unidos (FDA, por sus siglas en inglés) otorgó aprobación total a la vacuna Pfizer/BioNTech para su uso personas mayores de 16 años.

The vaccines that have been approved by COFEPRIS (Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risk) for use during the health emergency in Mexico are:

  • AstraZeneca/Oxford (04/01/2021)
  • CanSinoBIO (08/02/2021)
  • Covaxin (06/04/2021)
  • Johnson & Johnson (27/05/2021)
  • Moderna (17/08/21)
  • Pfizer/BioNTech* (11/12/2020)
  • Sinopharm (25/08/21)
  • Sinovac (09/02/2021)
  • Sputnik V (09/02/2021)

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html

https://www.gob.mx/cofepris/articulos/cofepris-emite-autorizacion-para-uso-de-emergencia-a-vacuna-sinopharm?state=published

2. What are the ingredients of the COVID vaccines?

Cada vacuna tiene una formulación que consiste, en términos generales, en el antígeno o proteína del virus SARS-CoV-2 que será el encargado de provocar la respuesta inmune (mecanismo de defensa) del organismo y contra el cual se producen los anticuerpos y células activadas. Adicionalmente se incluyen sustancias necesarias para mantener la estabilidad del antígeno antes y después de la aplicación, así como para estimular la capacidad de respuesta del sistema inmunológico posterior a la aplicación de la vacuna. A continuación, se describen los componentes de las cuatro vacunas actualmente disponibles para su aplicación: La vacuna contra COVID-19 de Pfizer/BioNTech contiene los siguientes componentes:
  • Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)Is the only active ingredient in the vaccine. The mRNA molecules contain the genetic material that provide instructions for our body on how to make a viral protein that triggers an immune response within our bodies. spike o espícula que desencadenará la respuesta inmune.
  • Lipids: Their main role is to protect the mRNA and provide somewhat of a “greasy” exterior that helps the mRNA slide inside the cells.
  • Salts : The following salts are included in the Pfizer vaccine and help balance the acidity in your body.
  • Sugar (sucrose): This ingredient helps the molecules maintain their shape during freezing.
La vacuna contra COVID-19 de Moderna contiene:
  • mRNA: Like the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine, Moderna’s also uses mRNA technology to build antibodies against COVID-19.
  • Lipids: The Moderna vaccine also requires lipids to help deliver the mRNA to the cells.
  • Stabilizing substances such as salts and sucrose.
https://www.hackensackmeridianhealth.org/HealthU/2021/01/11/a-simple-breakdown-of-the-ingredients-in-the-covid-vaccines/

La vacuna de AstraZeneca/Oxford contiene:
  • A viral vector called Adenovirus ChAdOx1, el cual es un adenovirus de chimpancé, que no causa enfermedad en los humanos. Este virus lleva consigo el material genético (similar al ARNm de las vacunas de Pfizer y Moderna), el cual se encargará de producir la proteína espícula del SARS-CoV-2.
  • In addition to the vector of the genetic material, the vaccine includes substances to maintain its stability.
https://www.cambridge-news.co.uk/news/uk-world-news/covid-19-what-ingredients-oxfordastrazeneca-19538759

The Sputnik V, desarrollada por el Centro Nacional Gamaleya, contiene:
  • Dos vectores virales, Adenovirus 26 in the first dose and Adenovirus 5 en la segunda dosis. Ambos virus son debilitados para no causar enfermedad en las personas, pero capaces de llevar el material genético del virus, específicamente el gen que lleva las instrucciones para que las células humanas puedan producir la proteína espícula del SARS-CoV-2.
  • In addition to the vector of the genetic material, the vaccine includes substances to maintain its stability.
Sputnik V – the first registered vaccine against COVID-19. Official website vaccine against coronavirus Sputnik V. (sputnikvaccine.com)

The CanSinoBio contiene:
  • A viral vector called Adenovirus 5, el cual es un virus debilitado para no causar enfermedad en las personas, pero capaz de llevar el material genético del virus, específicamente el gen que lleva las instrucciones para que las células humanas puedan producir la proteína espícula del SARS-CoV-2.
  • In addition to the vector of the genetic material, the vaccine includes substances to maintain its stability.
  • Esta vacuna se aplica en una sola dosis.
The Johnson & Johnson contiene:
  • A viral vector called Adenovirus 26, el cual es un virus debilitado, al igual que en la vacuna CanSinoBio, para no causar enfermedad en las personas, capaz de llevar el material genético del virus, específicamente el gen que lleva las instrucciones para que las células humanas puedan producir la proteína espícula del SARS-CoV-2.
  • In addition to the vector of the genetic material, the vaccine includes substances to maintain its stability.
  • Esta vacuna se aplica en una sola dosis.
COVID-19 vaccines Sinovac Biotech, Sinopharm and Covaxin, contienen el virus SARS-CoV-2 inactivado mediante una sustancia química llamada beta-propiolactona que quita al virus la posibilidad de reproducirse (replicarse) dentro de las células humanas, evitando que cause la enfermedad. Sin embargo, la proteína espiga o spike remains intact and with all the ability to stimulate the body's immune response to generate protection. In addition to the inactivated virus, the vaccine contains an aluminum-based substance called an "adjuvant" that serves to further stimulate the immune system to respond appropriately to the vaccine.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/health/sinovac-covid-19-vaccine.html#:~:text=A%20Vaccine%20Made%20From%20Coronaviruses,proteins%20that%20stud%20its%20surface.

https://www.fda.gov/media/146305/download#page=2

Vaccine

Country

Dose

Component

Efficiency

Authorized in Mexico

Pfizer / BioNTech

United States / Germany

2 dosis

Messenger RNA

95%

Authorized in Mexico

Moderna

United States

2 dosis

Messenger RNA

94.5%

Authorized in Mexico

Sputnik V
Gamaleya Research Institute

Russia

2 dosis

Adenovirus 26 Adenovirus 5

91%

Authorized in Mexico

COVAXIN
National Institute of Virology Bharat Biotech

India

2 dosis

Inactivated virus

81%

Authorized in Mexico

Sinopharm
Beijing Institute of Biological Products

China

2 dosis

Inactivated virus

79%

Authorized in Mexico

AstraZeneca / University of Oxford

Sweden - England

2 dosis

Adenovirus ChAdOx1

76%

Authorized in Mexico

CanSinoBIO
Beijing Biotechnology Institute

China

1 dosis

Adenovirus 5

68.80%

Authorized in Mexico

Johnson & Johnson

United States

1 dosis

Adenovirus 26

67%

Authorized in Mexico

Sinovac
Sinovac Biotech

China

2 dosis

Inactivated virus

50.38%

Authorized in Mexico

Pfizer / BioNTech

País: United States / Germany

Dosis: 2

Componente: Messenger RNA

Eficacia: 95%

Authorized in Mexico

Moderna

País: United States

Dosis: 2

Componente: Messenger RNA

Eficacia: 94.5%

Authorized in Mexico

Sputnik V
Gamaleya Research Institute

País: Russia

Dosis: 2

Componente: Adenovirus 26 | Adenovirus 5

Eficacia: 91%

Authorized in Mexico

COVAXIN
National Institute of Virology Bharat Biotech

País: India

Dosis: 2

Componente: Inactivated virus

Eficacia: 81%

Authorized in Mexico

Sinopharm
Beijing Institute of Biological Products

País: China

Dosis: 2

Componente: Inactivated virus

Eficacia: 79%

Authorized in Mexico

AstraZeneca / University of Oxford

País: Sweden - England

Dosis: 2

Componente: Adenovirus ChAdOx1

Eficacia: 76%

Authorized in Mexico

CanSinoBIO
Beijing Biotechnology Institute

País: China

Dosis: 1

Componente: Adenovirus 5

Eficacia: 68.80%

Authorized in Mexico

Johnson & Johnson

País: United States

Dosis: 1

Componente: Adenovirus 26

Eficacia: 67%

Authorized in Mexico

Sinovac
Sinovac Biotech

País: China

Dosis: 1

Componente: Inactivated virus

Eficacia: 50.38%

Authorized in Mexico

1. Do all vaccines work the same?

There are many different types of vaccines currently developed or in development against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The main mechanisms of action of vaccines are described below:

  • Nucleic acids: Vaccines that carry one or more genes of the coronavirus to human cells to produce viral proteins that trigger the immune response.
  • Viral Vectors: Vacunas que contienen virus diseñados para transportar genes de coronavirus. Las vacunas de vectores virales entran en las células y hacen que éstas produzcan proteínas virales que se expresan en la superficie de las células, para generar anticuerpos.
  • Protein-based: Vaccines that contain complete proteins or protein fragments of coronavirus, but no genetic material. By detecting viral proteins, the immune response is triggered and antibodies and defense cells are generated.
  • Virus inactivados: Vacunas creadas a partir de coronavirus que han sido inactivados con productos químicos. Estos virus son capaces de desencadenar la respuesta inmune pero no de causar la enfermedad.
https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html

2. How do COVID vaccines work?

There are several types of vaccines currently developed or in development against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Available vaccines include the following: Nucleic acid vaccines Both the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna, utilizan el ácido nucleico ARN mensajero (ARNm), una molécula con las instrucciones para la producción de proteínas por parte de las células. En el caso de estas vacunas, el ARNm tiene las instrucciones específicas para producir una proteína viral llamada proteína S, spike o espícula, la cual es esencial para que el virus infecte las células. Después de la vacunación, las células reciben las instrucciones y comienzan a fabricar la proteína S y a exhibirla en su superficie. El sistema inmunológico identifica entonces la proteína viral y dispara la respuesta inmunológica produciendo anticuerpos y células de defensa.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-vaccine/art-20484859

Viral vector vaccines For AstraZeneca'svaccine, researchers added the gene that produces the S protein from the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus to another virus called adenovirus. In this case, a modified version of a chimpanzee adenovirus known as ChAdOx1, which is harmless to humans, is used. This virus can enter cells, but cannot replicate inside them. Once inside the cell, the gene produces the viral protein which presents itself on the cell surface triggering the body's immune response.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/health/oxford-astrazeneca-covid-19-vaccine.html

Like AstraZeneca'svaccine, the Russian Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology's vaccine Sputnik Vand CanSinoBIO y la de Johnson & Johnson vaccine work via a viral vector. The vaccine uses two variants of adenovirus, a type of virus that causes colds, to which the gene with the instructions to produce the coronavirus spicule protein was included. The two types of adenovirus, Adenovirus 5 or Ad5 and Adenovirus 26 or Ad26 are designed to be able to invade cells to produce the spicule protein, but are not able to reproduce themselves. The strategy of using two types of adenovirus seeks to prevent the body's immune response from preventing the second dose of vaccine from working properly.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/health/gamaleya-covid-19-vaccine.html

https://www.fda.gov/media/146305/download#page=2

Attenuated vaccine Vaccines Sinovac Biotech, Sinopharm and Covaxin son vacunas de virus inactivado que utilizan la versión “muerta” del coronavirus que causa COVID-19. Las vacunas inactivadas no suelen proporcionar una protección tan fuerte como las vacunas vivas. Es posible que se necesiten varias dosis a lo largo del tiempo (vacunas de refuerzo) para tener inmunidad continua contra la enfermedad.

3. Do all vaccines give the same protection?

No. According to published research and experiments, after the second dose, or the single dose where appropriate, the efficacy of approved vaccines is as follows:

  • Pfizer/BioNTechhas an efficiency of 95%
  • Modernaof 94.5%
  • SputnikV of 91.4%
  • Covaxin of 81% of
  • Sinopharm of 79%
  • AstraZeneca's of 76%
  • CanSinoBio de 68.80%
  • Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) of 67%
  • Sinovac from 50.38%

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/janssen.html

4. How do I know that a vaccine is safe?

El proceso de desarrollo y producción de vacunas considera de manera especial la evaluación de que cada una de ellas es segura y genera la protección necesaria contra la enfermedad. Para ello se llevan a cabo pruebas, conocidas como ensayos clínicos, en grupos de personas. Actualmente se están realizando en diversas partes del mundo esos ensayos clínicos para evaluar todas las vacunas en desarrollo contra COVID-19 con la participación de decenas de miles de personas. Estos ensayos generan datos científicos e información que es utilizada por los organismos regulatorios, como COFEPRIS en México, FDA en Estados Unidos, o EMA en Europa, para determinar la seguridad y eficacia de la vacuna. Una vez que una vacuna está autorizada o aprobada para su uso por las autoridades regulatorias de cada país, se activan sistemas de control de seguridad, los cuales sirven para seguir vigilando la ocurrencia de posibles efectos secundarios. A través de este monitoreo continuo se busca detectar posibles efectos adversos que pueden no haberse presentado en los ensayos clínicos. Si se observa un evento adverso inesperado, particularmente si es grave, grupos de científicos expertos lo estudian rápidamente para evaluar si es un verdadero problema de seguridad y determinar si se puede o no mantener el uso de la vacuna.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/safety.html

5. Are all vaccines safe?

Sí. Cada productor de vacuna publica los resultados de sus ensayos clínicos donde se presenta evidencia de la seguridad, eficacia, efectos adversos y contraindicaciones basados en los resultados de los experimentos realizados.

This information, together with other details of the vaccine such as formulation and ability to generate protection, is submitted to the regulatory authorities to request authorization for use in each country. Authorization for use will then depend on the evidence that a vaccine is safe and effective in protecting the population against the disease.

In Mexico, COFEPRIS has already granted emergency use authorization to vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech,  AstraZeneca's, Sputnik V, Sinovac, CanSinoBIO, Covaxin, Johnson & Johnson, Moderna y Sinopharm which means that these vaccines are allowed to be used only as part of the emergency health care by COVID-19.

https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-55160530

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.gob.mx/cofepris/articulos/cofepris-emite-autorizacion-para-uso-de-emergencia-a-vacuna-sinopharm?state=published

1. Do all vaccines require two doses?

Las vacunas de Pfizer, AstraZeneca's, Moderna, Sputnik V, Sinovac y Sinopharm requieren de dos dosis. Las vacunas de CanSinoBIO and Johnson & Johnson requieren únicamente de una dosis.

Currently licensed COVID-19 vaccines require 2 doses for maximum protection:

  • Pfizer/BioNTech: doses should be applied 3 weeks (21 days) apart
  • Moderna: doses should be applied with an interval of 1 month (28 days)

The second dose should be given as close to the recommended interval of 3 weeks or 1 month as possible. However, there is no maximum interval between the first and second doses of either vaccine. The second dose should not be given before the recommended interval.

  • AstraZeneca/Oxford: The two doses should be applied with an interval of 28 days.
  • Sputnik V: The second dose should be applied 21 days after the first.
  • Sinovac: The second dose should be given 2 weeks after the first.
  • Covaxin: The second dose should be applied with an interval of 28 days.
  • Sinopharm: la segunda dosis debe aplicarse 3 semanas después de la primera.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/health/gamaleya-covid-19-vaccine.html

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/janssen.html

https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/the-sinopharm-covid-19-vaccine-what-you-need-to-know

2. Why is the application of the second dose of the vaccine important?

Determining the volume and number of doses that people must receive to achieve the desired level of protection against disease is one of the main elements of the vaccine development process. This finally determines the vaccination scheme for each vaccine, which is submitted to the regulatory authorities in each country.

Therefore, to achieve protection against the disease, it is important to comply with the number of doses and the interval between each established by the producer and authorized by the regulatory authority.

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-statement-following-authorized-dosing-schedules-covid-19-vaccines

3. What is the maximum time I have to administer the second dose of the vaccine?

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the maximum time to give the second dose of any vaccine is 6 weeks after the first dose is given.

  • Pfizer/BioNTech: doses should be applied 3 weeks (21 days) apart
  • Moderna: las dosis se deben aplicar con un intervalo 1 mes (28 días)
  • AstraZeneca/Oxford: the two doses should be applied with an interval of 1 month (28 days)
  • Sputnik V: The second dose should be applied within 21 days of the first
  • Sinovac: Doses should be applied with an interval of 2 weeks (14 days)
  • Sinopharm: Doses should be applied with an interval of 3 weeks (21 days)
  • Covaxin: The second dose should be applied with an interval of 28 days.

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/info-by-product/clinical-considerations.html

Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing (who.int)

The Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine: what you need to know (who.int)

https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/the-sinopharm-covid-19-vaccine-what-you-need-to-know

4. What happens if I only get one dose?

No completar el esquema de vacunación recomendado puede ocasionar que no se alcance el nivel de protección inmunológica esperada contra la enfermedad. Esto es importante porque ante algunas variantes, como Delta, el efecto protector requiere forzosamente tener el esquema completo y haber transcurrido 14 días desde la última aplicación.

At this time, scientific evidence supports the schemes defined by producers and authorized by regulatory agencies such as COFEPRIS. Therefore, it is important that all people who receive their vaccines against COVID-19, have their complete schedules.

Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing (who.int)

The Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine: what you need to know (who.int)

https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.n217

5. If I received the first dose with the Pfizer vaccine, can I have the second dose with another vaccine?

Hasta el momento hay evidencia científica que apoya la mezcla de algunos esquemas. Sin embargo, no existe una recomendación oficial al respecto en esta etapa de la estrategia de vacunación, ya que mezclar esquemas puede impactar en la disponibilidad de dosis suficientes para personas que no han recibido ninguna vacuna. Por lo tanto, la indicación actual es que ambas dosis del esquema deben completarse con el mismo producto.

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/info-by-product/clinical-considerations.html

Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing (who.int)

The Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine: what you need to know (who.int)

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

1. After receiving the vaccine, how long am I protected?

For Pfizer, adequate levels of protection against the disease are achieved, in the 95% of those vaccinated, after two doses, 28 days after the first dose was applied.

The Moderna alcanza niveles de protección adecuados del 94.5% a los 14 días después de la segunda dosis.

Vaccine protection from AstraZeneca's, in its optimal scheme, occurs in the 76% of those vaccinated after two doses, between two and three weeks after application.

The Sputnik V, reaches an effectiveness of 73.1% from the first dose and 91.6% when applying the second dose (day 21).

For the company's CoronaVac vaccine Sinovac, an effectiveness of 50.6% is reached after the application of the second dose, 14 days after the first.

The Johnson & Johnson, reaches an effectiveness of 67% from day 14 of the application of the single dose.

The CanSinoBIO, alcanza una efectividad del 68.80% a partir del día 28 de la aplicación de la única dosis.

Actualmente, la vacuna Covaxin no tiene información disponible al respecto.

The Sinopharm alcanza su eficacia 14 días después de la segunda dosis.

https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-conclude-phase-3-study-covid-19-vaccine

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2932661-1

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2821%2900234-8

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2931605-6

https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-announcement-of-results-of-phase-iii-of-sinovac-vaccine-in-china/

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/janssen.html

https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/the-sinopharm-covid-19-vaccine-what-you-need-to-know

2. If I have already been vaccinated, can I stop wearing face masks and can I stop social isolation?

No. Las vacunas no están diseñadas para bloquear la infección, sino para disminuir las hospitalizaciones y las defunciones. Por ello, es posible que personas vacunadas puedan infectarse, ya sea de manera sintomática o asintomática y así ser capaces de transmitir el virus a otras personas. Aunque hayas recibido tu esquema completo, se debe mantener el uso del cubrebocas para evitar la propagación del virus.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-vaccine/art-20484859

1. Can I get vaccinated against COVID at the same time I receive other vaccines?

While scientific evidence is currently limited, it does not appear that COVID-19 vaccines interfere with the immune response to other vaccines and vice versa. However, as long as you do not have other information, it is recommended wait 14 days after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine to receive another vaccine. Similarly, you must wait 14 days to receive the COVID-19 vaccine after receiving any other vaccine.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

1. Can the COVID vaccine be applied to children and adolescents?

Las aprobaciones de las autoridades regulatorias dependen de la evidencia de seguridad y eficacia presentada por los desarrolladores y productores de vacunas. En la actualidad, sólo una vacuna, Pfizer-BioNTech, ha sido autorizada para su aplicación en población de 12 a 17 años.

Currently, clinical trials of several vaccines have already begun in the population between 6 months and 18 years of age, so it is expected that by the end of 2021 there will be sufficient evidence on the safety, effectiveness and practical aspects of vaccination of this population against the coronavirus. Later they will be authorized in younger populations, once there is confidence that the vaccine will not cause any serious adverse event in children.

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/covid-19-vaccine-what-you-need-to-know

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2821%2900234-8

2. If I am pregnant, can I get the vaccine?

Vaccines are considered one of the safest medical products with the greatest benefit for people's health. Therefore, pregnant and lactating women can choose to apply the vaccine in a high-risk scenario. If you have questions about vaccination in pregnancy, it is advisable to consult a health professional.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

3. If I am breastfeeding, can I get the vaccine?

Si bien no hay evidencia de que las vacunas contra COVID-19 puedan causar alteraciones a los bebés lactantes, aún no se tienen suficientes datos para apoyar la vacunación generalizada a las madres que estén amamantando a sus bebés. Sin embargo, las mujeres lactantes que formen parte de un grupo al que se recomienda recibir la vacuna COVID-19 (por ejemplo personal de salud con alto riesgo de exposición al virus o con comorbilidades) pueden optar por vacunarse. Si tiene dudas sobre la vacunación y la lactancia, es recomendable consultar a un profesional de la salud.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

4. Can I get the AstraZeneca / Oxford University vaccine even if I am over 65 years old?

The vaccine developed by AstraZeneca/Universidad de Oxford It can be used by anyone over 18 years of age. Results from clinical trials have shown that the vaccine is safe and effective in adults over 65 years of age. It is very important that this age group is vaccinated against COVID-19 because they have a high risk of serious illness or death from the disease, situations that are prevented with the application of the vaccine.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

5. Can I get vaccinated if I am a person living with HIV?

According to the recommendations for the use of the vaccine AstraZeneca/Universidad de Oxford publicadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, dado que esta vacuna no se puede reproducir en el organismo, sí puede ser administrada a personas que viven con VIH.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

6. Can I get vaccinated if I am a person who suffers from some type of alteration of immunity, whether due to treatment (for example immunosuppressants or chemotherapy) or disease?

According to the recommendations for the use of the vaccine AstraZeneca/Universidad de Oxford published by the World Health Organization, since this vaccine cannot be reproduced in the body, it can be administered to people who suffer from any alteration of immunity, immunodeficiency or immunosuppression.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

7. Can I get vaccinated if I am a person with an autoimmune disease (eg celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis)?

According to the recommendations for the use of the vaccine AstraZeneca/Universidad de Oxford published by the World Health Organization, since this vaccine cannot be reproduced in the body, it can be administered to people with autoimmune diseases.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

1. How long does the protection of the vaccine last?

It is not known how long the immunity conferred by a COVID-19 vaccine will last. This is because more data from ongoing and additional long-term studies is needed to understand how long protection lasts after vaccination.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/human-regulatory/overview/public-health-threats/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/treatments-vaccines/covid-19-vaccines-key-facts#how-long-will-immunity-from-a-vaccine-last?-section

2. Will we have to get vaccinated every year?

European Union authorities will coordinate independent studies on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in real life, to gather more information on their safety and long-term benefit in the general population. The results of these long-term studies will inform future vaccination strategies.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/human-regulatory/overview/public-health-threats/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/treatments-vaccines/covid-19-vaccines-key-facts#how-long-will-immunity-from-a-vaccine-last?-section

1. If I already got COVID, can I get the vaccine?

People who have already had COVID-19 or tested positive can benefit from the vaccine. There is currently not enough information available to say if people are protected against COVID-19 after they have had it (natural immunity) or for how long. Preliminary evidence suggests that the natural immunity may not last long, but more studies are needed to better understand this.

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/covid-19-vaccine-what-you-need-to-know

Other sources mention that due to the serious health risks associated with COVID-19 and the fact that reinfection is possible, it is advisable to get vaccinated. If you were treated for COVID-19 symptoms with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days to apply the corresponding vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you are not sure what treatments you received, or if you have more questions about getting vaccinated against COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/facts.html

According to data published by the World Health Organization, reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is considered rare in the first 6 months after symptomatic infection. Therefore, while people who have suffered COVID-19 can safely receive the vaccine, it is recommended to wait 6 months after the illness to receive the first dose of the vaccine.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

2. How long after I got COVID can I get vaccinated?

The application of the vaccine should be postponed in people who have recently had COVID-19 and still continue with symptoms of this condition. Therefore, people with confirmed PCR disease and symptoms should wait for symptoms to disappear before receiving the first dose of the vaccine.

https://coronavirus.gob.mx/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/GuiaAplicacionVx_BNT162b_08Ene2021.pdf

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

3. Which lasts longer, immunity after having COVID or the protection of vaccines against COVID?

The protection someone gets from having an infection (called “natural immunity”) varies by disease and varies from person to person. Because this virus is new, we don't know how long natural immunity might last. Current evidence suggests that contracting the virus again (reinfection) is rare within 90 days of the first infection with the virus that causes COVID-19.

We won't know how long immunity lasts after vaccination until we have more data on how well COVID-19 vaccines work under real-world conditions. Experts are working to learn more about natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

Viruses are constantly changing through mutation as part of their natural evolution, and new variants of the virus are expected to appear over time. Sometimes new variants emerge and then disappear. At other times, new variants emerge and persist. Several variants of the virus causing COVID-19 have been documented worldwide during this pandemic.

The virus that causes COVID-19 is a type of coronavirus, a large family of viruses. Coronaviruses are so named because of the corona-like spikes found on their surface. These spikes are the structures by which the coronavirus causing COVID-19 binds to cells to infect them. Scientists monitor changes in the virus, including changes in the surface spikes. These studies, which include genetic analyses of the virus, help scientists understand how changes in the virus can affect how it spreads and what happens to people who become infected with it.

There are different variants of the virus causing COVID-19 circulating in the world, the most important of which are the following:

  • El Reino Unido (RU) identificó una variante llamada Alfa con una gran cantidad de mutaciones en el otoño del 2020.

This variant spreads more easily and rapidly than the other variants. In January 2021, UK experts reported that this variant may be associated with an increased risk of death, relative to the other variants of the virus, but further research is needed to confirm this finding. Since then, it has been detected in many countries around the world. The first case of this variant in the United States was detected in late December 2020.

  • En Sudáfrica apareció otra variante llamada Beta, detectada en octubre de 2020, y comparte algunas mutaciones con la variante Alfa. A fines de enero del 2021 también se notificaron casos causados por esta variante en los Estados Unidos.
  • En Brasil apareció una variante llamada Gamma, que se identificó por primera vez en viajeros provenientes de Brasil sometidos a las pruebas de detección de rutina en un aeropuerto de Japón a principios de enero. Esta variante contiene un juego de mutaciones adicionales que podrían afectar su capacidad de ser reconocida por los anticuerpos. El primer caso de esta variante en los Estados Unidos fue detectado a fines de enero de 2021.
  • En India, en febrero de 2021 se identificó la variante denominada Delta, la cual es la más transmisible de todas las variantes conocidas y actualmente es la variante dominante en el mundo. Esta variante presenta además cierta capacidad de evasión inmune, por lo que ha impactado en la eficacia de todas las vacunas actualmente disponibles, no obstante, este impacto es menor en las personas que tienen esquemas completos de vacunación y que tienen más de 14 días de haberlo completado.

These variants appear to spread more easily and rapidly than the other variants, which could lead to more cases of COVID-19.

So far, studies suggest that antibodies generated through vaccination with currently licensed vaccines recognize these variants. This aspect is being carefully studied and further research is ongoing.

https://espanol.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/transmission/variant.html