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COVID-19 Vaccination

1. How many COVID-19 vaccines are available?

Vaccine development generally take years of research and testing before they reach the public, but in 2020 and in the COVID-19 pandemic context, scientists around the world are working to produce safe and effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 in record time. There are currently hundreds of research groups developing and testing different types of vaccines. As of January 2021, 66 vaccines are already in human clinical trials, and 20 have reached the final stages of testing.

The most advanced vaccines have already been approved for emergency use by several countries. Those include:

  • Pfizer/BioNTech
  • Moderna
  • Sputnik V
  • AstraZeneca/Oxford
  • CanSinoBIO
  • Sinopharm
  • Sinovac
  • Johnson & Johnson (Janssen)
  • Covaxin
 

The vaccines that have been approved by COFEPRIS (Federal Commission for the Protection against Sanitary Risk) for use during the health emergency in Mexico are:

  • Pfizer/BioNTech
  • AstraZeneca/Oxford
  • Sputnik V
  • Sinovac
  • CanSinoBIO
  • Covaxin

2. What are the ingredients of the COVID vaccines?

Each vaccine has a formulation which generally consists of the antigen or protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus which will be responsible for triggering the immune response (defense mechanism) of the organism and against which the antibodies and activated cells are produced. In addition, necessary substances are included to maintain the stability of the antigen before and after the application, as well as to stimulate the response capacity of the immune system after the application of the vaccine.

The ingredients of the three vaccines currently available for application are described below:

Pfizer/BioNTech's COVID-19 vaccine contains the following ingredients:

  • Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA)Is the only active ingredient in the vaccine. The mRNA molecules contain the genetic material that provide instructions for our body on how to make a viral protein that triggers an immune response within our bodies. spike o espícula que desencadenará la respuesta inmune.
  • Lipids: Their main role is to protect the mRNA and provide somewhat of a “greasy” exterior that helps the mRNA slide inside the cells.
  • Salts : The following salts are included in the Pfizer vaccine and help balance the acidity in your body.
  • Sugar (sucrose): This ingredient helps the molecules maintain their shape during freezing.

Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine contains the following ingredients:

  • mRNA: Like the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine, Moderna’s also uses mRNA technology to build antibodies against COVID-19.
  • Lipids: The Moderna vaccine also requires lipids to help deliver the mRNA to the cells.
  • Stabilizing substances such as salts and sucrose.

https://www.hackensackmeridianhealth.org/HealthU/2021/01/11/a-simple-breakdown-of-the-ingredients-in-the-covid-vaccines/

AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccine is made up of:

  • A viral vector called Adenovirus which is weakened so it cannot cause disease in people. This virus carries with it the genetic material (similar to the mRNA of the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines), which will be responsible for producing the SARS-CoV-2 spicule protein.
  • In addition to the vector of the genetic material, the vaccine includes substances to maintain its stability.

https://www.cambridge-news.co.uk/news/uk-world-news/covid-19-what-ingredients-oxfordastrazeneca-19538759

The Sputnik V vaccine, developed by the Gamaleya National Center, contains:

  • A viral vector called Adenovirus 26 in the first dose and Adenovirus 5 in the second dose. Both viruses are weakened so as not to cause disease in people, but capable of carrying the genetic material of the virus, specifically the gene that carries the instructions for human cells to produce the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
  • In addition to the vector of the genetic material, the vaccine includes substances to maintain its stability.

Sputnik V – the first registered vaccine against COVID-19. Official website vaccine against coronavirus Sputnik V. (sputnikvaccine.com)

The CanSinoBio vaccine contains:

  • A viral vector called Adenovirus 5, which is a virus weakened so as not to cause disease in people, but capable of carrying the genetic material of the virus, specifically the gene that carries the instructions for human cells to produce the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
  • In addition to the vector of the genetic material, the vaccine includes substances to maintain its stability.
  • This vaccine is given in a single dose

The Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) vaccine contains:

  • A viral vector called Adenovirus 26, which is a weakened virus, as in the CanSinoBio vaccine, so as not to cause disease in people, capable of carrying the genetic material of the virus, specifically the gene that carries the instructions for human cells to produce the spike protein SARS-CoV-2
  • In addition to the vector of the genetic material, the vaccine includes substances to maintain its stability.
  • This vaccine is given in a single dose

Las vacunas contra COVID-19 Sinovac Biotech and Sinopharm (desarrolladas por empresas privadas chinas) y *Covaxin, (por el Instituto Nacional de Virología Bharat Biotech), contienen el virus SARS-CoV-2 inactivado utilizando una sustancia química llamada beta-propiolactona que quita al virus la posibilidad de reproducirse (replicarse) dentro de las células humanas evitando que cause la enfermedad. Sin embargo, la proteína espiga o spike permanece intacta y con toda la capacidad para estimular la respuesta inmunológica del organismo para generar protección. Además del virus inactivado, la vacuna contiene una sustancia a base de aluminio llamada “adyuvante” que sirve para estimular aún más al sistema inmunológico para que responda adecuadamente a la vacuna.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/health/sinovac-covid-19-vaccine.html#:~:text=A%20Vaccine%20Made%20From%20Coronaviruses,proteins%20that%20stud%20its%20surface

Vacuna

País

Dosis

Componente

Eficacia

Autorizada en México

Pfizer / BioNTech

Estados Unidos / Alemania

2

ARN mensajero

95%

Sputnik V
Instituto de Investigaciones Gamaleya

Rusia

2

Adenovirus

91%

COVAXIN
Instituto Nacional de Virología Bharat Biotech

India

2

Virus inactivado

81%

AstraZeneca / Universidad de Oxford

Suecia - Inglaterra

2

Adenovirus

76%

CanSinoBIO
Instituto de Biotecnología de Beijing

China

1

Adenovirus

68.80%

Sinovac
Sinovac Biotech

China

2

Virus inactivado

50.38%

Moderna

Estados Unidos

2

ARN mensajero

95%

No

Sinopharm
Instituto de Productos Biológicos de Pekín

China

2

Virus inactivado

79%

No

Johnson & Johnson (Janssen)

Estados Unidos

1

Adenovirus

67%

No

Vacuna

Pfizer / BioNTech

País

Estados Unidos / Alemania

Dosis

2

Componente

ARN mensajero

Eficacia

95%

Autorizada en México

Vacuna

Sputnik V
Instituto de Investigaciones Gamaleya

País

Rusia

Dosis

2

Componente

Adenovirus

Eficacia

91%

Autorizada en México

Vacuna

COVAXIN
Instituto Nacional de Virología Bharat Biotech

País

India

Dosis

2

Componente

Virus inactivado

Eficacia

81%

Autorizada en México

Vacuna

AstraZeneca / Universidad de Oxford

País

Suecia - Inglaterra

Dosis

2

Componente

Adenovirus

Eficacia

76%

Autorizada en México

Vacuna

CanSinoBIO
Instituto de Biotecnología de Beijing

País

China

Dosis

1

Componente

Adenovirus

Eficacia

68.80%

Autorizada en México

Vacuna

Sinovac
Sinovac Biotech

País

China

Dosis

2

Componente

Virus inactivado

Eficacia

50.38%

Autorizada en México

Vacuna

Moderna

País

Estados Unidos

Dosis

2

Componente

ARN mensajero

Eficacia

95%

Autorizada en México

No

Vacuna

Sinopharm
Instituto de Productos Biológicos de Pekín

País

China

Dosis

2

Componente

Virus inactivado

Eficacia

79%

Autorizada en México

No

Vacuna

Johnson & Johnson (Janssen)

País

Estados Unidos

Dosis

1

Componente

Adenovirus

Eficacia

67%

Autorizada en México

No

1. Do all vaccines work the same?

There are many different types of vaccines currently developed or in development against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The main mechanisms of action of vaccines are described below:

  • Nucleic acids: Vaccines that carry one or more genes of the coronavirus to human cells to produce viral proteins that trigger the immune response.
  • Viral Vectors: Vaccines containing viruses designed to carry coronavirus genes. Some viral vector vaccines enter cells and cause them to produce viral proteins. Other viral vectors replicate slowly and carry coronavirus proteins on their surface.
  • Protein-based: Vaccines that contain complete proteins or protein fragments of coronavirus, but no genetic material. By detecting viral proteins, the immune response is triggered and antibodies and defense cells are generated.
  • Inactivated or attenuated viruses: Vaccines created from weakened coronaviruses or coronaviruses that have been inactivated with chemicals. These viruses are capable of triggering the immune response but not of causing disease.

 

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html

2. How do COVID vaccines work?

There are several types of vaccines currently developed or in development against SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Available vaccines include the following:

Nucleic acid vaccines

Both the Pfizer/BioNTech and Modernavaccines use the messenger nucleic acid (mRNA), a molecule containing the instructions for protein production by cells. In the case of these vaccines, the mRNA has specific instructions to produce a viral protein called protein S, spike or spicule, which is essential for the virus to infect cells.

After vaccination, the cells receive the instructions and begin to manufacture the S protein and display it on their surface. The immune system then identifies the viral protein and triggers the immune response by producing antibodies and defense cells.

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-vaccine/art-20484859

Viral vector vaccines

For AstraZeneca'svaccine, researchers added the gene that produces the S protein from the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus to another virus called adenovirus. In this case, a modified version of a chimpanzee adenovirus known as ChAdOx1, which is harmless to humans, is used. This virus can enter cells, but cannot replicate inside them. Once inside the cell, the gene produces the viral protein which presents itself on the cell surface triggering the body's immune response.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/health/oxford-astrazeneca-covid-19-vaccine.html

Like AstraZeneca'svaccine, the Russian Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology's vaccine Sputnik Vand CanSinoBIO's vaccine and Johnson & Johnson's (Janssen) vaccine work via a viral vector. The vaccine uses two variants of adenovirus, a type of virus that causes colds, to which the gene with the instructions to produce the coronavirus spicule protein was included. The two types of adenovirus, Adenovirus 5 or Ad5 and Adenovirus 26 or Ad26 are designed to be able to invade cells to produce the spicule protein, but are not able to reproduce themselves. The strategy of using two types of adenovirus seeks to prevent the body's immune response from preventing the second dose of vaccine from working properly.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/health/gamaleya-covid-19-vaccine.html

Attenuated vaccine 

Las vacunas Sinovac Biotech, Sinopharm and Covaxin vaccine are inactivated virus vaccines that use the "killed" version of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19.

Inactivated vaccines usually do not provide as strong protection as live vaccines. Several doses over time (booster vaccines) may be needed for continued immunity against the disease.

3. Do all vaccines give the same protection?

No. According to published research and experiments, after the second dose, or the single dose where appropriate, the efficacy of approved vaccines is as follows:

  • Pfizer/BioNTech has an efficiency of 95%
  • Moderna of 94.5%
  • SputnikV of 91.4%
  • Covaxin de 81%
  • Sinopharm of 79%
  • AstraZeneca's de 76%
  • CanSinoBio de 68.8%
  • Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) de 67%
  • Sinovac from 50.38%

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

4. How do I know that a vaccine is safe?

The process of vaccine development and production gives special attention to the evaluation that every vaccine is safe and generates the required protection against the disease. For this purpose, tests, known as clinical trials, are carried out on groups of people.

Currently, these clinical trials are being conducted in different places around the world to evaluate all COVID-19 vaccines under development with the participation of tens of thousands of people. These trials generate scientific data and information that is used by regulatory agencies, such as COFEPRIS in Mexico or FDA in the United States, to determine the safety and efficacy of the vaccine.

Once a vaccine is authorized or approved for use by the regulatory authorities of each country, safety control systems are activated, which serve to continue monitoring the occurrence of possible side effects. Through this continuous monitoring, the aim is to detect possible adverse effects that may not have occurred in clinical trials. If an unexpected adverse event is observed, particularly if it is serious, groups of expert scientists quickly study it to assess whether it is a real safety problem and determine whether or not the vaccine can be maintained in use.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/safety.html

5. Are all vaccines safe?

Each vaccine producer publishes the results of its clinical trials presenting evidence of safety, efficacy, adverse effects and counter-indications based on the results of the conducted trials.

This information, together with other details of the vaccine such as formulation and ability to generate protection, is submitted to the regulatory authorities to request authorization for use in each country. Authorization for use will then depend on the evidence that a vaccine is safe and effective in protecting the population against the disease.

In Mexico, COFEPRIS has already granted emergency use authorization to vaccines from Pfizer/BioNTech,  AstraZeneca's, Sputnik V, Sinovac, CanSinoBIO and Covaxin   which means that these vaccines are allowed to be used only as part of the emergency health care by COVID-19.

https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-55160530

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

1. Do all vaccines require two doses?

The Pfizer , AstraZeneca , Moderna , Sputnik V and Sinovac vaccines require two doses. The CanSinoBIO and Johnson & Johnson vaccines require only one dose.

Currently licensed COVID-19 vaccines require 2 doses for maximum protection:

  • Pfizer/BioNTech: doses should be applied 3 weeks (21 days) apart
  • Moderna: doses should be applied with an interval of 1 month (28 days)

The second dose should be given as close to the recommended interval of 3 weeks or 1 month as possible. However, there is no maximum interval between the first and second doses of either vaccine. The second dose should not be given before the recommended interval.

  • AstraZeneca/Oxford: The two doses should be applied with an interval of 28 days.
  • Sputnik V: The second dose should be applied 21 days after the first.
  • Sinovac: The second dose should be given 2 weeks after the first.
  • Covaxin: La segunda dosis se debe aplicar con un intervalo de 28 días.

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/health/gamaleya-covid-19-vaccine.html

https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/science/coronavirus-vaccine-tracker.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

2. Why is the application of the second dose of the vaccine important?

Determining the volume and number of doses that people must receive to achieve the desired level of protection against disease is one of the main elements of the vaccine development process. This finally determines the vaccination scheme for each vaccine, which is submitted to the regulatory authorities in each country.

Therefore, to achieve protection against the disease, it is important to comply with the number of doses and the interval between each established by the producer and authorized by the regulatory authority.

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-statement-following-authorized-dosing-schedules-covid-19-vaccines

3. What is the maximum time I have to administer the second dose of the vaccine?

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the maximum time to give the second dose of any vaccine is 6 weeks after the first dose is given.

  • Pfizer/BioNTech: doses should be applied 3 weeks (21 days) apart
  • Moderna: doses should be applied with an interval of 1 month (28 days)
  • AstraZeneca/Oxford: the two doses should be applied with an interval of 1 month (28 days)
  • Sputnik V: The second dose should be applied within 21 days of the first
  • Sinovac: Doses should be applied with an interval of 2 weeks (14 days)
  • Sinopharm: Doses should be applied with an interval of 3 weeks (21 days)
  • Covaxin: La segunda dosis se debe aplicar con un intervalo de 28 días.

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/info-by-product/clinical-considerations.html

Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing (who.int)

The Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine: what you need to know (who.int)

4. What happens if I only get one dose?

Failure to complete the recommended vaccination schedule may result in the expected level of immune protection against the disease being not achieved. Studies are currently being carried out to measure the level of protection conferred by the partial and complete schedules of the different vaccines against COVID-19.

At this time, scientific evidence supports the schemes defined by producers and authorized by regulatory agencies such as COFEPRIS. Therefore, it is important that all people who receive their vaccines against COVID-19, have their complete schedules.

Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing (who.int)

The Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine: what you need to know (who.int)

https://www.bmj.com/content/372/bmj.n217

5. If I received the first dose with the Pfizer vaccine, can I have the second dose with another vaccine?

So far there is no scientific evidence to ensure that the different vaccines against COVID-19 can be interchangeable with each other, since the safety and efficacy of a mixed product scheme has not been evaluated. Therefore, the current indication is that both doses in the scheme should be completed with the same product.

https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/info-by-product/clinical-considerations.html

Interim recommendations for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, BNT162b2, under Emergency Use Listing (who.int)

The Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine: what you need to know (who.int)

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

1. After receiving the vaccine, how long am I protected?

For Pfizer, adequate levels of protection against the disease are achieved, in the 95% of those vaccinated, after two doses, 28 days after the first dose was applied.

Vaccine protection from AstraZeneca's, in its optimal scheme, occurs in the 76% of those vaccinated after two doses, between two and three weeks after application.

The Russian vaccine Sputnik V, reaches an effectiveness of 73.1% from the first dose and 91.6% when applying the second dose (day 21).

For the company's CoronaVac vaccine Sinovac, an effectiveness of 50.6% is reached after the application of the second dose, 14 days after the first.

The Johnson & Johnson (Janssen), reaches an effectiveness of 67% from day 14 of the application of the single dose.

The CanSinoBIO, reaches an effectiveness of 68.8% from day 28 of the application of the single dose.

https://www.pfizer.com/news/press-release/press-release-detail/pfizer-and-biontech-conclude-phase-3-study-covid-19-vaccine

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2932661-1

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2821%2900234-8

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2820%2931605-6

https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-announcement-of-results-of-phase-iii-of-sinovac-vaccine-in-china/

2. If I have already been vaccinated, can I stop wearing face masks and can I stop social isolation?

There is still no scientific evidence on the duration of protection against COVID-19 conferred by different vaccines. In addition to the individual effect, the protection afforded by the vaccine also depends on population considerations such as the number of people vaccinated in a community and how this affects the spread of the virus.

Considering the above, there are some observations that indicate that a vaccinated person can be contagious, even if they no longer develop the disease. The current recommendation is that all preventive measures and precautions should be maintained to avoid contagion: physical distancing, use of face masks, hand hygiene and strict isolation of people with symptoms or contact of positive cases.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-vaccine/art-20484859

1. Can I get vaccinated against COVID at the same time I receive other vaccines?

While scientific evidence is currently limited, it does not appear that COVID-19 vaccines interfere with the immune response to other vaccines and vice versa. However, as long as you do not have other information, it is recommended wait 14 days after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine to receive another vaccine. Similarly, you must wait 14 days to receive the COVID-19 vaccine after receiving any other vaccine.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

1. Can the COVID vaccine be applied to children and adolescents?

Regulatory authority approvals are dependent on evidence of safety and efficacy submitted by vaccine developers and producers. At present, all the information derived from clinical trials has been the experience in the population over 16 years of age and, therefore, no vaccine has been licensed for use in people younger than that age.

Currently, clinical trials of several vaccines have already begun in the population between 6 months and 18 years of age, so it is expected that by the end of 2021 there will be sufficient evidence on the safety, effectiveness and practical aspects of vaccination of this population against the coronavirus. Later they will be authorized in younger populations, once there is confidence that the vaccine will not cause any serious adverse event in children.

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/covid-19-vaccine-what-you-need-to-know

https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2821%2900234-8

2. If I am pregnant, can I get the vaccine?

Vaccines are considered one of the safest medical products with the greatest benefit for people's health. Therefore, pregnant and lactating women can choose to apply the vaccine in a high-risk scenario. If you have questions about vaccination in pregnancy, it is advisable to consult a health professional.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

3. If I am breastfeeding, can I get the vaccine?

While there is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines can cause disturbances in nursing babies, there is not yet enough data to support widespread vaccination of mothers who are breastfeeding their babies. However, lactating women who are part of a group recommended to receive the COVID-19 vaccine (for example, health personnel at high risk of exposure to the virus or with comorbidities) may choose to be vaccinated. If you have questions about vaccination and breastfeeding, it is advisable to consult a health professional.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

4. Can I get the AstraZeneca / Oxford University vaccine even if I am over 65 years old?

The vaccine developed by AstraZeneca/Universidad de Oxford It can be used by anyone over 18 years of age. Results from clinical trials have shown that the vaccine is safe and effective in adults over 65 years of age. It is very important that this age group is vaccinated against COVID-19 because they have a high risk of serious illness or death from the disease, situations that are prevented with the application of the vaccine.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

5. Can I get vaccinated if I am a person living with HIV?

The vaccine developed by AstraZeneca/Universidad de Oxford It can be used by anyone over 18 years of age. Results from clinical trials have shown that the vaccine is safe and effective in adults over 65 years of age. It is very important that this age group is vaccinated against COVID-19 because they have a high risk of serious illness or death from the disease, situations that are prevented with the application of the vaccine.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

6. Can I get vaccinated if I am a person who suffers from some type of alteration of immunity, whether due to treatment (for example immunosuppressants or chemotherapy) or disease?

 According to the recommendations for the use of the vaccine AstraZeneca/Universidad de Oxford published by the World Health Organization, since this vaccine cannot be reproduced in the body, it can be administered to people who suffer from any alteration of immunity, immunodeficiency or immunosuppression.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

7. Can I get vaccinated if I am a person with an autoimmune disease (eg celiac disease, type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis)?

 According to the recommendations for the use of the vaccine AstraZeneca/Universidad de Oxford published by the World Health Organization, since this vaccine cannot be reproduced in the body, it can be administered to people with autoimmune diseases.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

1. How long does the protection of the vaccine last?

It is not known how long the immunity conferred by a COVID-19 vaccine will last. This is because more data from ongoing and additional long-term studies is needed to understand how long protection lasts after vaccination.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/human-regulatory/overview/public-health-threats/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/treatments-vaccines/covid-19-vaccines-key-facts#how-long-will-immunity-from-a-vaccine-last?-section

2. Will we have to get vaccinated every year?

European Union authorities will coordinate independent studies on the use of COVID-19 vaccines in real life, to gather more information on their safety and long-term benefit in the general population. The results of these long-term studies will inform future vaccination strategies.

https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/human-regulatory/overview/public-health-threats/coronavirus-disease-covid-19/treatments-vaccines/covid-19-vaccines-key-facts#how-long-will-immunity-from-a-vaccine-last?-section

1. If I already got COVID, can I get the vaccine?

People who have already had COVID-19 or tested positive can benefit from the vaccine. There is currently not enough information available to say if people are protected against COVID-19 after they have had it (natural immunity) or for how long. Preliminary evidence suggests that the natural immunity may not last long, but more studies are needed to better understand this.

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/covid-19-vaccine-what-you-need-to-know

Other sources mention that due to the serious health risks associated with COVID-19 and the fact that reinfection is possible, it is advisable to get vaccinated. If you were treated for COVID-19 symptoms with monoclonal antibodies or convalescent plasma, you should wait 90 days to apply the corresponding vaccine. Talk to your doctor if you are not sure what treatments you received, or if you have more questions about getting vaccinated against COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/facts.html

According to data published by the World Health Organization, reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is considered rare in the first 6 months after symptomatic infection. Therefore, while people who have suffered COVID-19 can safely receive the vaccine, it is recommended to wait 6 months after the illness to receive the first dose of the vaccine.

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

2. How long after I got COVID can I get vaccinated?

The application of the vaccine should be postponed in people who have recently had COVID-19 and still continue with symptoms of this condition. Therefore, people with confirmed PCR disease and symptoms should wait for symptoms to disappear before receiving the first dose of the vaccine.

https://coronavirus.gob.mx/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/GuiaAplicacionVx_BNT162b_08Ene2021.pdf

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-vaccines-SAGE_recommendation-AZD1222-2021.1/

3. Which lasts longer, immunity after having COVID or the protection of vaccines against COVID?

The protection someone gets from having an infection (called “natural immunity”) varies by disease and varies from person to person. Because this virus is new, we don't know how long natural immunity might last. Current evidence suggests that contracting the virus again (reinfection) is rare within 90 days of the first infection with the virus that causes COVID-19.

We won't know how long immunity lasts after vaccination until we have more data on how well COVID-19 vaccines work under real-world conditions. Experts are working to learn more about natural immunity and vaccine-induced immunity.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/faq.html

Los virus cambian constantemente a través de la mutación como parte de su evolución natural, y se espera que aparezcan nuevas variantes del virus con el paso del tiempo. A veces, emergen nuevas variantes y luego desaparecen. En otras ocasiones, emergen nuevas variantes y persisten. Se han documentado diversas variantes del virus que causa el COVID-19 a nivel mundial durante esta pandemia.

El virus que causa el COVID-19 es un tipo de coronavirus, una gran familia de virus. Los coronavirus reciben este nombre debido a los picos en forma de corona que se encuentran en su superficie. Estos picos son las estructuras mediante las cuales el coronavirus causante de COVID-19 se une a las células para infectarlas. Los científicos monitorean los cambios del virus, incluidos los cambios en los picos de la superficie. Estos estudios, que incluyen análisis genéticos del virus, ayudan a los científicos a entender cómo los cambios en el virus pueden incidir en la forma en que se propaga y lo que le pasa a las personas que se infectan con él.

Hay diferentes variantes del virus que causa el COVID-19 en circulación en el mundo, las más importantes son las siguientes:

  • El Reino Unido (RU) identificó una variante llamada B.1.1.7 con una gran cantidad de mutaciones en el otoño del 2020.

Esta variante se propaga con mayor facilidad y rapidez que las otras variantes. En enero de 2021, los expertos del RU informaron que esta variante puede estar asociada a un mayor riesgo de muerte, en relación con las otras variantes del virus, pero es necesario seguir investigando para confirmar este hallazgo. Desde entonces, se ha detectado en muchos países del mundo. El primer caso de esta variante en los Estados Unidos fue detectado a fines de diciembre de 2020.

  • En Sudáfrica apareció otra variante llamada B.1.351, independientemente de la B.1.1.7. la B.1.35 fue detectada originalmente en octubre de 2020, y comparte algunas mutaciones con la B.1.1.7. A fines de enero del 2021 también se notificaron casos causados por esta variante en los Estados Unidos.
  • En Brasil apareció una variante llamada P.1, que se identificó por primera vez en viajeros provenientes de Brasil sometidos a las pruebas de detección de rutina en un aeropuerto de Japón a principios de enero. Esta variante contiene un juego de mutaciones adicionales que podrían afectar su capacidad de ser reconocida por los anticuerpos. El primer caso de esta variante en los Estados Unidos fue detectado a fines de enero de 2021.

Estas variantes parecen propagarse con mayor facilidad y rapidez que las otras variantes, lo que podría generar más casos de COVID-19. 

Hasta el momento, los estudios sugieren que los anticuerpos generados a través de la vacunación, con las vacunas autorizadas en la actualidad, reconocen estas variantes. Este aspecto se está estudiando atentamente y hay más investigaciones en curso.

https://espanol.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/transmission/variant.html

Los virus cambian constantemente a través de la mutación como parte de su evolución natural, y se espera que aparezcan nuevas variantes del virus con el paso del tiempo. A veces, emergen nuevas variantes y luego desaparecen. En otras ocasiones, emergen nuevas variantes y persisten. Se han documentado diversas variantes del virus que causa el COVID-19 a nivel mundial durante esta pandemia.

El virus que causa el COVID-19 es un tipo de coronavirus, una gran familia de virus. Los coronavirus reciben este nombre debido a los picos en forma de corona que se encuentran en su superficie. Estos picos son las estructuras mediante las cuales el coronavirus causante de COVID-19 se une a las células para infectarlas. Los científicos monitorean los cambios del virus, incluidos los cambios en los picos de la superficie. Estos estudios, que incluyen análisis genéticos del virus, ayudan a los científicos a entender cómo los cambios en el virus pueden incidir en la forma en que se propaga y lo que le pasa a las personas que se infectan con él.

Hay diferentes variantes del virus que causa el COVID-19 en circulación en el mundo, las más importantes son las siguientes:
El Reino Unido (RU) identificó una variante llamada B.1.1.7 con una gran cantidad de mutaciones en el otoño del 2020.

Esta variante se propaga con mayor facilidad y rapidez que las otras variantes. En enero de 2021, los expertos del RU informaron que esta variante puede estar asociada a un mayor riesgo de muerte, en relación con las otras variantes del virus, pero es necesario seguir investigando para confirmar este hallazgo. Desde entonces, se ha detectado en muchos países del mundo. El primer caso de esta variante en los Estados Unidos fue detectado a fines de diciembre de 2020.

En Sudáfrica apareció otra variante llamada B.1.351, detectada en octubre de 2020, y comparte algunas mutaciones con la B.1.1.7. A fines de enero del 2021 también se notificaron casos causados por esta variante en los Estados Unidos.
En Brasil apareció una variante llamada P.1, que se identificó por primera vez en viajeros provenientes de Brasil sometidos a las pruebas de detección de rutina en un aeropuerto de Japón a principios de enero. Esta variante contiene un juego de mutaciones adicionales que podrían afectar su capacidad de ser reconocida por los anticuerpos. El primer caso de esta variante en los Estados Unidos fue detectado a fines de enero de 2021.

Estas variantes parecen propagarse con mayor facilidad y rapidez que las otras variantes, lo que podría generar más casos de COVID-19.  

Hasta el momento, los estudios sugieren que los anticuerpos generados a través de la vacunación, con las vacunas autorizadas en la actualidad, reconocen estas variantes. Este aspecto se está estudiando atentamente y hay más investigaciones en curso.

https://espanol.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/transmission/variant.html

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